Choice of Law

When a dispute has a connection to more than one jurisdiction, and when the laws of those jurisdictions are materially different, a court must perform a choice-of-law analysis to determine which law to apply. To make this determination, a court will typically apply the choice-of-law rules of the jurisdiction in which it sits. Although choice-of-law rules vary significantly across U.S. states, many courts look to the Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws for guidance. The American Law Institute is currently in the process of drafting the Restatement (Third) of Conflict of Laws.

A Primer on Choice of Law

Choice-of-law rules are used to determine the rights, duties, and liabilities of persons involved in a case with a connection to more than one jurisdiction. In the United States, most choice-of-law rules are state law; the federal government rarely legislates in this area. Courts in the United States apply the same choice-of-law rules to international…

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Overlooking the CISG

The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) entered into force in 1988. Its stated goal is to harmonize the law of sales across many different countries, thereby making it unnecessary for courts in these countries to perform a choice-of-law analysis when the dispute involves an international sales contract. The…

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Microsoft’s Dispute Resolution Provisions Are (Still) a Mess

Exactly one year ago today, I authored a post titled “Microsoft’s Dispute Resolution Provisions Are a Mess.” In it, I argued that the “Jurisdiction and Governing Law” clause in the form purchase order used by Microsoft and its subsidiaries in 109 countries around the world was “incoherent.”  My goal is writing the post was to…

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Ganpat’s Saga Continues

Regular TLB readers may recall the tragic story of Kholkar Vishveshwar Ganpat, an Indian citizen and merchant seaman who lost his toes to malaria, allegedly because his ship failed to stock sufficient antimalarial medicine when it docked at Savannah, Georgia. In 2018, Ganpat sued the ship’s operator, Singapore-based Eastern Pacific Shipping (EPS), in federal district…

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